Below are the Georgia Performance Standards for 2nd grade.
STANDARD: Students will be aware of the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works.
> Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers to some of the questions by making careful observations and measurements and trying to figure things out.
STANDARD: Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations.
> Use whole numbers in ordering, counting, identifying, measuring, and describing things and experiences.
> Readily give the sums and differences of single-digit numbers in ordinary, practical contexts and judge the reasonableness of the answer.
> Give rough estimates of numerical answers to problems before doing them formally.
STANDARD: Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating objects in scientific activities.
> Use ordinary hand tools and instruments to construct, measure, and look at objects.
> Assemble, describe, take apart, and reassemble constructions using interlocking blocks, erector sets and other things.
> Make something that can actually be used to perform a task, using paper, cardboard, wood, plastic, metal, or existing objects.
STANDARD: Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters.
> Identify the parts of things, such as toys or tools, and identify what things can do when put together that they could not do otherwise.
> Use a model—such as a toy or a picture—to describe a feature of the primary thing.
> Describe changes in the size, weight, color, or movement of things, and note which of their other qualities remain the same during a specific change.
> Compare very different sizes, weights, ages (baby/adult), and speeds (fast/slow) of both human made and natural things.
STANDARD: Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly.
> Describe and compare things in terms of number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, and motion.
> Draw pictures (grade level appropriate) that correctly portray features of the thing being described.
> Use simple pictographs and bar graphs to communicate data.
STANDARD: Students will be familiar with the character of scientific knowledge and how it is achieved.
> When a science investigation is done the way it was done before, we expect to get a similar result.
> Science involves collecting data and testing hypotheses.
> Scientists often repeat experiments multiple times and subject their ideas to criticism by other scientists who may disagree with them and do further tests.
> All different kinds of people can be and are scientists.
STANDARD: Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry.
> Scientists use a common language with precise definitions of terms to make it easier to communicate their observations to each other.
> In doing science, it is often helpful to work as a team. All team members should reach their own individual conclusions and share their understandings with other members of the team in order to develop a consensus.
> Tools such as thermometers, rulers and balances often give more information about things than can be obtained by just observing things without help.
> Much can be learned about plants and animals by observing them closely, but care must be taken to know the needs of living things and how to provide for them.
STANDARD: Students will understand that stars have different sizes, brightness, and patterns.
> Describe the physical attributes of stars—size, brightness, and patterns.
STANDARD: Students will investigate the position of sun and moon to show patterns throughout the year.
> Investigate the position of the sun in relation to a fixed object on earth at various times of the day.
> Determine how the shadows change through the day by making a shadow stick or using a sundial.
> Relate the length of the day and night to the change in seasons. (Days are longer than the night in the summer.)
> Use observations and charts to record the shape of the moon for a period of time.
STANDARD: Students will observe and record changes in their surroundings and infer the causes of the changes.
> Recognize effects that occur in a specific area caused by weather, plants, animals, and/or people.
STANDARD: Students will investigate the properties of matter and changes that occur in objects.
> Identify the three common states of matter as solid, liquid, or gas.
> Investigate changes in objects by tearing, dissolving, melting, squeezing, etc.
STANDARD: Students will identify sources of energy and how the energy is used.
> Identify sources of light energy, heat energy, and energy of motion.
> Describe how light, heat, and motion energy are used.
STANDARD: Students will demonstrate changes in speed and direction using pushes and pulls.
> Demonstrate how pushing and pulling an object affects the motion of the object.
> Demonstrate the effects of changes of speed on an object.
STANDARD: Students will investigate the life cycles of different living organisms.
> Determine the sequence of the life cycle of common animals in your area: a mammal such as a cat or dog or classroom pet, a bird such as a chicken, an amphibian such as a frog, and an insect such as a butterfly.
> Relate seasonal changes to observations of how a tree changes throughout a school year.
> Investigate the life cycle of a plant by growing a plant from a seed and by recording changes over a period of time.
> Identify fungi (mushroom) as a living organism.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: In second grade, the various social studies strands become more woven around the historical strand. The history strand focuses on important historical figures in Georgia and the Creek and Cherokee cultures in Georgia. The geography strand emphasizes the geography of Georgia and relates that to the historical study. In addition to the positive character traits of the individuals and groups in the historical strand, the basic concept of government is also introduced. Basic economics concepts continue to be introduced and are related to the historical strand.
STANDARD: The student will read about and describe the lives of historical figures in Georgia history.
> identify the contributions made by these historic figures: James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove (founding of Georgia); Sequoyah (development of a Cherokee alphabet); Jackie Robinson and Martin Luther King, Jr. (civil rights); Jimmy Carter (leadership and human rights)
> describe how everyday life of these historical figures is similar to and different from everyday life in the present (food, clothing, homes, transportation, communication, recreation, rights and freedoms)
STANDARD: The student will describe the Georgia Creek and Cherokee cultures of the past in terms of tools, clothing, homes, ways of making a living, and accomplishments.
> describe the regions in Georgia where the Creek and Cherokee lived and how the people used their local resources
> compare and contrast the Georgia Creek and Cherokee cultures of the past to Georgians today.
STANDARD: The student will locate major topographical features of Georgia and will describe how these features define Georgia’s surface.
> locate all the geographic regions of Georgia: Blue Ridge Mountains, Piedmont, Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateau
> locate the major rivers: Ocmulgee, Oconee, Altamaha, Savannah, St. Mary’s Chattahoochee, Flint
STANDARD: The student will describe the cultural and geographic systems associated with the historical figures in SS2.1 and Georgia’s Creek and Cherokee.
> identify specific locations significant to the life and times of each historic figure on a political map
> describe how place (physical and human characteristics) impacted the lives of each historic figure
> describe how each historic figure adapted to and was influenced by his/her environment
> trace examples of travel and movement of these historic figures and their ideas across time
> describe how the region in which these historic figures lived affected their lives and compare these regions to the region in which the students live
STANDARD: The student will define the concept of government and the need for rules and laws.
STANDARD: The student will identify the roles of the following elected officials:
> president (leader of our nation)
> governor (leader of our state)
> mayor (leader of a city).
STANDARD: The student will give examples of how the historic figures under study demonstrate the positive citizenship traits of honesty, dependability, liberty, trustworthiness, honor, civility, patience, and compassion.
STANDARD: The student will demonstrate knowledge of
> the state and national capitol buildings by identifying them from pictures
> capitals of the United States and Georgia by locating them on appropriate maps.
STANDARD: The student will explain that because of scarcity, people must make choices and incur opportunity costs.
STANDARD: The student will identify ways in which good and services are allocated (by price, majority rule, contests, force, sharing, lottery, command, first-come, first-served, personal characteristics, and others).
STANDARD: The student will explain that people trade for goods and services because they expect to be better off after the exchange
> explain a barter economic system
> explain a monetary based economic system
> explain how money makes trade easier than barter.
STANDARD: The student will describe the costs and benefits of personal spending and saving choices. .
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Numbers and Operations Students will further develop their understanding of numbers - including fractions - and how to represent them. The students will understand and apply addition, subtraction and multiplication through concrete manipulation and perform basic calculations.
STANDARD: Students will understand the place value representation of whole numbers through four digits.
> Represent numbers using a variety of models, diagrams, and number sentences (e.g., 4703 represented as 4,000 + 700 + 3, and units, 47 hundreds + 3, or 4,500 + 203).
> Understand the relative magnitudes of numbers using 10 as a unit, 100 as a unit, or 1000 as a unit. Represent 2-digit numbers with drawings of tens and ones and 3-digit numbers with drawings of hundreds, tens, and ones.
> Use money as a medium of exchange. Count back change and use decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols to represent a collection of coins and currency.
STANDARD: Students will build fluency with multi-digit addition and subtraction.
> Correctly add and subtract two whole numbers up to three digits each with regrouping.
> Understand and use the inverse relation between addition and subtraction to solve problems and check solutions.
> Use mental math strategies such as benchmark numbers to solve problems.
> Use basic properties of addition (commutative, associative, and identity) to simplify problems (e.g. 98 + 17 by taking two from 17 and adding it to the 98 to make 100 and replacing the original problem by the sum 100 + 15).
> Estimate to determine if solutions are reasonable for addition and subtraction.
STANDARD: Students will understand multiplication, multiply numbers, and verify results.
> Understand multiplication as repeated addition.
> Use repeated addition, arrays, and counting by multiples (skip counting) to correctly multiply 1-digit numbers and construct the multiplication table.
> Use the multiplication table (grid) to determine a product of two numbers.
> Use repeated subtraction, equal sharing, and forming equal groups to divide large collections of objects and determine factors for multiplication.
STANDARD: Students will create simple tables and graphs and interpret their meaning.
> Organize and display data using picture graphs, Venn diagrams, bar graphs, and simple charts/tables to record results.
> Know how to interpret picture graphs, Venn diagrams, and bar graphs.
COURSE DESCRIPTION: Process Skills
STANDARD: Students will solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts.
> Solve non- routine word problems using the strategies of use or look for a pattern or guess and check as well as all strategies learned in previous grades.
> The student will solve single step routine word problems related to all appropriate second grade math standards.
> Determine the operation(s) needed to solve a problem.
> Determine the most efficient way to solve a problem (mentally, paper/pencil, or calculator).
STANDARD: Students will be able to investigate, develop, and evaluate mathematical arguments.
STANDARD: Students will be able to use the language of mathematics to express ideas precisely.
STANDARD: Students understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another and apply mathematics in other content areas.
STANDARD: Students will be able to create and use pictures, manipulatives, models, and symbols to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.
STANDARD: The student quickly applies knowledge of letter-sound correspondence and spelling patterns to decode unfamiliar words.
> Reads words containing blends, digraphs, and diphthongs.
> Recognizes, reads, and writes words containing regular plurals, irregular plurals, and possessives.
> Reads compound words and contractions in grade appropriate texts.
> Reads and spells words containing r-controlled vowels and silent letters.
> Reads and spells words containing irregular vowel patterns.
> Reads multisyllabic words.
> Applies learned phonics skills when reading and writing words, sentences, and stories.
STANDARD: The student demonstrates the ability to read orally with speed, accuracy, and expression.
> Automatically recognizes additional high frequency and familiar words within texts.
> Reads familiar text with expression.
> Reads second-grade texts at a target rate of 90 words correct per minute.
> Uses self-correction when subsequent reading indicates an earlier misreading within gradelevel text.
STANDARD: The student acquires and uses grade-level words to communicate effectively
> Reads a variety of texts and uses new words in oral and written language.
> Recognizes grade appropriate words with multiple meanings.
> Recognizes and applies the appropriate usage of homophones, homographs, antonyms, and synonyms.
> Determines the meaning of unknown words on the basis of context.
STANDARD: The student uses a variety of strategies to gain meaning from grade-level text
> Reads a variety of texts for information and pleasure.
> Makes predictions from text content.
> Generates questions before, during and after reading.
> Recalls explicit facts and infers implicit facts.
> Summarizes text content.
> Distinguishes fact from fiction in a text.
> Interprets information from illustrations, diagrams, charts, graphs and graphic organizers.
> Makes connections between texts and/or personal experiences.
> Identifies and infers main idea and supporting details.
> Self-monitors comprehension and attempts to clarify meaning.
> Identifies and infers cause-and-effect relationships.
> Recognizes plot, setting, and character within text, and compares and contrasts these elements among texts.
> Recognizes the basic elements of a variety of genres (e.g., poetry, fables, folktales).
> Uses titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information quickly and accurately and to preview text.
> Recognizes the author’s purpose.
> Uses word parts to determine meanings.
> Uses dictionary, thesaurus, and glossary skills to determine word meanings.
STANDARD: The student demonstrates competency in the writing process.
> Writes text of a length appropriate to address a topic and tell the story.
> Uses traditional organizational patterns for conveying information (e.g., chronological order, similarity and difference, answering questions).
> Uses transition words and phrases.
> Begins to create graphic features (charts, tables, graphs).
> Begins to use appropriate formatting conventions for letter writing (e.g., date, salutation, body, closing).
> Begins to write a response to literature that demonstrates understanding of the text and expresses and supports an opinion.
> Begins to write a persuasive piece that states and supports an opinion.
> Prewrites to generate ideas orally.
> Uses planning ideas to produce a rough draft.
> Rereads writing to self and others, revises to add details and edits to make corrections.
> Creates documents with legible handwriting.
> Consistently writes in complete sentences with correct subject/verb agreement.
> Uses nouns (singular, plural, and possessive) correctly.
> Uses singular possessive pronouns.
> Uses singular and plural personal pronouns.
> Uses increasingly complex sentence structure.
> Uses common rules of spelling.
> Uses appropriate capitalization and punctuation (periods, question and exclamation marks) at the end of sentences (declarative, interrogative, and exclamatory/ simple and compound).
> Begins to use commas (e.g., in a series, in dates, after friendly a letter greeting, in a friendly letter closure, and between cities and states), and periods after grade appropriate abbreviations.
> Uses a variety of resources (encyclopedia, Internet, books) to research and share information on a topic.
> Recognizes appropriate uses of quotation marks.
> Uses the dictionary and thesaurus to support word choices.
STANDARD: The student uses oral and visual strategies to communicate.
> Interprets information presented and seeks clarification when needed.
> Begins to use oral language for different purposes: to inform, to persuade, and to entertain.
> Uses increasingly complex language patterns and sentence structure when communicating.
> Listens to and views a variety of media to acquire information.
> Increases vocabulary to reflect a growing range of interests and knowledge.